"Introduction to Personality Type and Terminology"
Barbara P. Ring, R.N., M.A.
The information on this website is based upon type theory that assumes
that the variation in human behavior is not due to chance, but to
basic and observable differences in the ways people prefer to use their
minds to gather and to process information. These preferences can
be identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), a well-researched
self-report instrument developed by Katharine Briggs and Isabel Briggs
Myers. This instrument is used extensively in work and organizational
environments and is generally recognized by psychologists to be one of
the best personality inventories available today.
The MBTI identifies four pairs of preferences which combine to make sixteen different personality types. These pairs are as follows:
E – Extraversion: direction
of energy toward the outer world of people and things.
I – Introversion: direction of energy toward the inner world of concepts and ideas.
2. METHOD OF PERCEIVING
S – Sensation: becoming
aware of and gathering information through the physical senses.
N – Intuition: becoming aware of and gathering information through an intangible, usually
unconscious sense (“sixth sense”).
3. METHOD OF JUDGING
T – Thinking: making
decisions objectively, based on laws, principles, and factual
F – Feeling: making decisions subjectively, based on values and relationships – one’s
own and those of others.
4. PERCEIVING/JUDGING PREFERENCE
P – Perceiving: liking
to gather information, keeping things open-ended, and “going with the flow”.
J – Judging: liking to have things decided, coming to conclusions, having a plan; aware of time factors and needing structure for comfort.
We need a well-developed perceiving
process to have an accurate perspective of reality.
We need a well-developed judging process to analyze the information gathered and to decide how to use it to act effectively.
Dominant Process: the process
which will govern the other preferences, giving direction to and setting
goals for the personality.
Auxiliary Process: the process which is a helper
for and which will work in the interest of the dominant process.
It will also provide balance between the P
and the J and the E
and the I preferences.
If the perceiving process is
the dominant (governing) process, the
judging process will be the auxiliary
(helping) process. If the judging process
is the dominant (governing) process, the perceiving process
will be the auxiliary (helping) process.
We use all of the above preferences and processes at different times,
and each is appropriate in certain situations. However, one’s inborn
preferences will (mostly) determine which are most used and which will,
therefore, be best developed. This gives rise to infinite variation,
even among people of the same type.