Volume 1, Number 1                                                                                                                                                           June 1998




Fannie R. Linder, Psy.D.
Fellow, American College of Forensic Examiners
Fellow, American Psychotherapy Association
American Association of Christian Counselors

If you are a person, you have a personality - a specific, unique kind of personality, in fact.  God gave you a unique personality even as He gave you DNA with specific instructions for your own unique fingerprints, voice prints, hair follicles, eye color, skin color, shoe size, etc.  All of these can be scientifically measured and you can be identified  by them.  Science is good when it measures and reports the truth.  A profile can now be made of a criminal and future activity predicted based upon what he has done - because personality shows how we are apt to think and to act.

Most people - including Christians - do not know much about their own personalities.  This is unfortunate, for we are enjoined by scripture to change, to grow, and to work out (with the Holy Spirit’s help) our own salvation.  How can we do that effectively if we don’t even know the person that God has made?  Wanting to know more about your personality -- who you are and how you interact with others -- is certainly an honorable desire.  I  Cor. 11:28 says, “Let a man examine himself...”.  This pertains to use of personality, too.

According to psychometric studies, personality type does not fluctuate for most people: that, basically, our temperaments appear to be the result of genetic inheritance and early experiences in life...what God has given us, what has happened to us and what we have done with it.

One psychometric inventory that has gained in validity and  in popularity in finding out your personality based on type classification is the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.  However, always bear in mind that even though you may fit into a particular classification, or type, each person within that classification may be similar to the others of that type - yet is totally unique -- and wonderfully made!

Personality is also dynamically able to grow, to expand us - releasing talents and gifts that may have even been hidden from our view.  If personality could not grow, it could not be shaped by the effort of understanding and there would be little reason to seek counsel; nor would  we be expected to do anything about the conviction of the Holy Spirit.  We are, however, told to “work out our own salvation”.

According to our personalities, our “work” on ourselves will differ from another’s.  How we perceive reality, how we react to life, how we look at things will impact throughout the frame of our personality.  Tremendous personal growth and self-fulfillment can be the result.  It can also cause distress and emotional upset when we are unaware that events in our lives have the ability to shape us in ways beyond our control.  Knowing our personality type can assist us in knowing how to face difficult  situations.

From time to time, it’s wise to examine ourselves -  to give some attention to our growth, to look at our relationships with our family members, our friends and even our work associates, and to try to understand how our personalities are interacting with theirs.  It is wise to examine whether we are using the gifts that God has given us to add to the potential fulness of which humans are capable: bringing the Kingdom of  Heaven down to earth.  Indeed, many do not even know they have gifts.  They don't realize that they have potential.  Studying our personality type can be of assistance in giving us insights for it helps us to measure “what’s in you”.

Being a member of a particular type certainly does not mean that you are not unique.  You are.  It simply means that you are more like that particular type of persons than you are like other types of persons.  It means, too, that you would probably naturally “get along” better with those of your type than certain other types.  Knowing type can explain why you and others just seem to “rub” each other the wrong way.  It may simply be personality, for people who see the world differently would tend to disagree for that simple reason...and not for something personal at all.

The MYERS-BRIGGS TYPE INDICATOR results say that none of the personality types is “good” or “bad”, that none is better or worse than any other.  That whatever the type you are is just fine.  As the saying goes, “God don’t make junk”!  There are, quite simply, things to embrace and things to watch out for.  Accepting yourself is the first step in accepting others.

Through self-knowledge, you become understandable - by yourself and by others.  Your personality type suits you well to get along with people in certain situations, and you also have parts of you that sometimes build walls between yourself and others.  Both parts become understandable when you come to know “you”.

You have strengths, you have weaknesses.  Everybody does.  The more you know about the relationships between your strengths and weaknesses, the better you become at both observing and understanding yourself.  The more you are able to understand and gain insight into your own behaviors, the more you will be able to understand the behaviors of others and, with the Holy Spirit’s help and guidance, your personal fulfillment and effectiveness can be immeasurably increased - to your wonderment and to His glory.

"For as we have many members in one body, and all members have not the same office: So we, being many, are one body...and every one members one of another..."
"Having then gifts differing...whether prophecy, let us prophesy...Or ministry, let us wait on our ministering: or he that teacheth, on teaching; Or he that exhorteth, on exhortation..."

Romans 12:4-8



"Kabbalah:  Tradition of Hidden Knowledge"
Zev ben Shimon Halevi

"One of the most potent symbols in the Bible is the Crossing of the Red Sea.  This is not just the record of a miraculous event in a nation's history but the description of a spiritual initiation.  Once an aspirant [disciple] has left the old way of life, represented by Egypt, and crossed the sea of commitment, he cannot go back.  He has to face the inner psychological desert, with its rebellions and its discipline, its purification and its revelation on an INNER Mount Sinai, until the old slave psychology has died and he is ready in a new generation of attitudes to enter the promised land of the Spirit.


"Kabbalah:  Tradition of Hidden Knowledge"
Zev ben Shimon Halevi

"[Moses] is the choice to bring the enslaved children of Israel - the psyche,  with its mass of discontent and ingrained habit - into the Promised Land of [Spirit]; or [the psyche has another choice]  to remain, unrealized in a desert between the fleshpots of Egypt and the land flowing with milk and honey."


"The Correlations of Jung's Analytical Psychology Theory of Archetypes with the Principalities of the Christian Biblical Spirit Realm"
Fannie R. Linder, PsyD

"Humanity tends to be organized around common, unlearned experiences, i.e., similar inherited patterns of desires and propensities – introverting, extroverting, sensing, intuiting, feeling, thinking, judging and perceiving, religiously experiencing, socially organizing; variously, a warrior, a protector, a hero, a liar, a pretender. The primordial, organizing forces are called, in Jungian analytical psychology, archetypes.

There is a ring of authenticity surrounding archetypes that correlates to my understanding of Judeo-Christian concepts of the spirit realm. In one sense, both the journey of individuation and of the spiritual path are encounters with the archetypes, seen as good and evil aspects of the spirit realm challenging us to change.

The archetypes are the ego-predestinating contents of the collective unconscious. Jung theorizes that, not only are these inherited instincts not culturally determined, but that they fashion us psychically according to their individual forms much as genes shape and predetermine our physical forms and behaviors – totally outside of our consciousness.

It is my hypothesis that these archetypes correlate with the entities mentioned in the New Testament as principalities: the archangels of the Bible.

"Jungian Theory of Archetypes"

Archetypes Ar•che•type 1. The original pattern or model of which all things of the same type are representations, copies or correspondences 2. Prototype 3. A perfect example 4. An inherited idea or mode of thought in the psychology of C. G. Jung that is derived from the experience of the race and is present in the unconscious of the individual, influencing his perception of the world 5. A spiritual (formless) organizing principle with the ability to project its image into form through Man (Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary Online, n.d.)

C. G. Jung spoke of archetypes extensively in his writings. The following excerpts help to understand his concept of archetype: "Archetypes are systems of readiness for action, and at the same time images and emotions. They are inherited with the brain structure-indeed they are its psychic aspect. They represent, on the one hand, a very strong instinctive conservatism, while on the other hand they are the most effective means conceivable of instinctive adaptation. They are thus, essentially, the chthonic portion of the psyche . . . that portion through which the psyche is attached to nature." (Jung, 1970b, para. 53)

"Archetypes…present themselves as ideas and images, like everything else that becomes a content of consciousness." (Jung, 1970a, para. 435)

"Archetypes are, by definition, factors and motifs that arrange the psychic elements into certain images, characterized as archetypal, but in such a way that they can be recognized only from the effects they produce." (Jung, 1970c, para. 222, note 2)

"Psychologically…the archetype as an image of instinct is a spiritual goal toward which the whole nature of man strives; it is the sea to which all rivers wend their way, the prize which the hero wrests from the fight with the dragon." (Jung, 1970a, paras. 414, 415)

Jung (1977) says "an archetype – so far as we can establish it empirically – is an image. An image, as the very term denotes, is a picture of something. The archetype is known through the image. These are not thought to be inherited ideas; rather, they represent 'a mode of psychic behavior', i.e., universally inherited patterns of behavior. There is no doubt in my mind that there is an original behind our images, but it is inaccessible. We could not even be aware of the original since its translation into psychic terms is necessary to make it perceptible at all." (p. 706)

Jung defines an archetype (or “primordial image”) as "a figure – be it a daemon, a human being or a process – that constantly recurs in the course of history and appears wherever creative fantasy is freely expressed....It is as though chords in us were struck that had never resounded before, or as though forces whose existence we never suspected were unloosed." (Jung, 1971, para. 127, 128) In Man and His Symbols, Jung (1968) characterized the archetype as "a tendency to form representations of a motif – representations [images] that can vary a great deal in detail without losing their basic pattern". (p. 58)

That inherited (unlearned) tendency acts as an "organizing principle" on the things we see or do. It is virtually instinctive, although instincts are physiological, being perceived by the senses. As an example, every individual is instinctively born with the urge to eat even though we each know nothing about food nor about what we might each yearn for nor what might satisfy the yearning. The yearning itself is universal yet able to be satisfied in culture-specific ways. Jung says that archetypes are without known origin, yet are reproduced universally in the interior life of the imagination, even in parts of the world where "contamination" by "cross-fertilization" through migration does not exist. An example would be the desire to worship. What each worships will be individualistic but worship we will, whether that be material things, other peoples, or perceived deities. Those organizing principles that lead to universal like-experiencing are called, in Jungian theory, archetypes.

Jung states that no fixed number of archetypes is known. They emerge or stay hidden according to scripts humans are not conscious of, but many are observable universally. Some he identified by nomenclature, such as the Self (which he identified as the image of God, which image informs us – unconsciously – within that "something" is greater than anything else in existence). It is when that unconscious yearning becomes known in our conscious mind that we have the choice of acting upon the yearning, worshipping the perceived God in reality.

Jung differentiated between the archetypal image and the archetype itself. The archetypes are inaccessible to the conscious mind, Jung said, because, being a part of the psychic realm, they transcend the human consciousness. Thus, they are present with us universally in the internal structures of the psyche, and are hidden unless they autonomously, according to their own laws, desire to enter the consciousness of humanity through images imposed on both the individual and the universal consciousness at their choosing. They are, therefore, forces that have the power to impact our lives. Being primordial, they bring historical and personal experience into the individual life or the historical arena.

Jung goes on to explain why the original is inaccessible: "How would Kant's Critique of Pure Reason look when translated into the psychic imagery of a cockroach? I assume that the difference between man and the Creator of all things is immeasurably greater than between a cockroach and man. Why should we be so immodest as to suppose that we could catch a universal being in the narrow confines of our language?" (Jung, 1977, para. 706)

He further adds: "For years I have been observing and investigating the products of the unconscious in the widest sense of the word, namely dreams, fantasies, visions, and delusions of the insane. I have not been able to avoid recognizing certain regularities, that is, types. There are types of situations and types of figures that repeat themselves frequently and have a corresponding meaning. I therefore employ the term 'motif' to designate these repetitions. Thus there are not only typical dreams but typical motifs in dreams…. [These] can be arranged under a series of archetypes...." (Jung, 1977, para. 309)

Hebrew and Greek Word Study for Archetype


The very first three words of the Old Testament are: "In the beginning". The Hebrew for the word beginning is re'shiyth. Interestingly, the Hebrew for beginning correlates with the root word of the first syllable of the word archetype.

Strong's concordance defines re'shiyth thusly: H7225 re'shiyth {ray-sheeth'}; from the same as H7218 AV – (Authorized Version, King James), translated beginning 18, firstfruits 11, first 9, chief 8, misc 5; Total 51 times

1) first, beginning, best, chief

1a) beginning

1b) first

1c) chief

1d) choice part

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H7225)

The root word is necessary to know in order to get the fullest meaning of a particular word usage. Re'shiyth is taken from the following root word:

H7218 ro'sh {roshe}; from an unused root apparently meaning to shake AV – head 349 [occurances], chief 91, top 73, beginning 14, company 12, captain 10, sum 9, first 6, principal 5, chapters 4, rulers 2, misc 23; [total] 598

1) head, top, summit, upper part, chief, total, sum, height, front, beginning

1a) head (of man, animals)

1b) top, tip (of mountain)

1c) height (of stars)

1d) chief, head (of man, city, nation, place, family, priest)

1e) head, front, beginning

1f) chief, choicest, best

1g) head, division, company, band

1h) sum

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H7218)

The Greek (New Testament) word study of the word beginning leads again to interesting insights: John 1:1 (King James Version) "In the beginning [G746] was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God."

G746 arche {ar-khay'}; from G756

AV – beginning 40, principality 8, corner 2, first 2, misc 6; 58

1) beginning, origin

2) the person or thing that commences, the first person or thing in a series, the leader

3) that by which anything begins to be, the origin, the active cause

4) the extremity of a thing4a) of the corners of a sail

5) the first place, principality, rule, magistracy5a) of angels and demons

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G746)

G756 archomai {ar'-khom-ahee}; middle voice of G757 (through the implication of precedence)

AV – begin 83, rehearse from the beginning 1; 84

1) to be the first to do (anything), to begin

2) to be chief, leader, ruler

3) to begin, make a beginning

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G756)

G757 archo {ar'-kho}; a primary word

AV - rule over 1, reign over 1; 2

1) to be chief, to lead, to rule

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G757)

G758 archon {ar'-khone}; present participle of G757

AV - ruler 22, prince 11, chief 2, magistrate 1, chief ruler 1; 37

1) a ruler, commander, chief, leader

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G758)


The Greek word study of the word ensample (example, pattern, form) leads to:

G5179 typos {too'-pos}; from G5180

AV - ensample 5, print 2, figure 2, example 2, pattern 2, fashion 1, manner 1, form 1; 16

1) the mark of a stroke or blow, print

2) a figure formed by a blow or impression

2a) of a figure or image

2b) of the image of the gods

3) form

4) an example>

4a) in the technical sense, the pattern in conformity to which a thing must be made

4b) in an ethical sense, a dissuasive example, a pattern of warning

4c) an example to be imitated

4c1) of men worthy of imitation

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G5179)

The just completed word study of beginning and ensample clearly correlates with the word archetype. This is as it should be, for beginning and ensample mean the same thing as original, pattern, first - as does archetype: first or chief form, image, figure.

Discovering the Identity of Principalities

The word principalities occurs in both the Old and the New Testaments: Jer. 13:18 “Say unto the king and to the queen, Humble yourselves, sit down: for your principalities shall come down, [even] the crown of your glory.”

Rom. 8:38, 39 “For I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers, nor things present, nor things to come, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, will be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus, our Lord.”

Eph. 3:10 “To the intent that now unto the principalities and powers in heavenly [places] might be known by the church the manifold wisdom of God.”

Eph. 6:12 “For we wrestle not against flesh and blood, but against principalities, against powers, against the rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high [places].”

Col. 2:15 “[And] having spoiled principalities and powers, he made a shew of them openly, triumphing over them in it.”

Col. 1:16 “For by him were all things created, that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether [they be] thrones, or dominions, or principalities, or powers: all things were created by him, and for him:”

Correlation of Archetypes and Principalities

An examination of a Hebrew and Greek word study of the word principalities will show concretely if the term principalities does, indeed, correlate with the term archetypes.


The Old Testament Hebrew for the term principalities will be examined first:

H4761 mar'ashah {mar-aw-shaw'}; denominative from H7218

AV - principalities 1; 1

1) place at the head, dominion, head place

2) at head place

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H4761)

Interestingly, this Hebrew word for principalities is taken from the same root word as beginning. That root word, as we have seen before, is:

H7218 ro'sh {roshe}; from an unused root apparently meaning to shake AV - head 349, chief 91, top 73, beginning 14, company 12, captain 10, sum 9, first 6, principal 5, chapiters 4, rulers 2, misc 23; 598

1) head, top, summit, upper part, chief, total, sum, height, front, beginning

1a) head (of man, animals)

1b) top, tip (of mountain)

1c) height (of stars)

1d) chief, head (of man, city, nation, place, family, priest)

1e) head, front, beginning

1f) chief, choicest, best

1g) head, division, company, band

1h) sum

Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H7218)

It appears the words for archetype, beginning, first (original, pattern) do correlate, thus far, with the Old Testament Hebrew word for principalities. A word study of the New Testament Greek word for principalities will solidify the hypothesis of correlation with archetype: G746 arche {ar-khay'}; from G756 AV - beginning 40, principality 8, corner 2, first 2, misc 6; 58

1) beginning, origin

2) the person or thing that commences, the first person or thing in a series, the leader

3) that by which anything begins to be, the origin, the active cause

4) the extremity of a thing

4a of the corners of a sail

)5) the first place, principality, rule, magistracy

5a) of angels and demons

Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G756)

It is evident from the biblical perspective, as shown clearly in Ephesians 6:12, that principalities (archetypes) are, indeed, forces to be reckoned with. It is evident that these forces are seen to impact our individual spiritual lives, just as Jung states that archetypes emerge to interact in and impact our individual psychological lives. It is evident, too, that these forces are hostile, as well as conciliatory, for the sense of wrestling with "the [unseen] rulers of the darkness of this world, against spiritual wickedness in high places”. Some biblical translations say "wickedness in heavenly places". These forces are also known as pernicious despots, spiritual hosts of evil, authorities, hostile to the self, as others of them are conciliatory and, although autonomous, helpful in leading us through the instruments of dreams, visions and creative ideas.

Colossians 2:15 shows principalities as some of those Christ fought with and disarmed of their powers over His nature, triumphing over their ability to "spoil" His life and character, just as psychotherapists and their clients analyze dreams and behaviors to discern what is "behind" them, so as to wrestle the psyche free from negative archetypal intrusions assaulting the mind and spirit of man, or to mine the riches of positive insights from archetypal presentation.

Wholeness and Reconciliation

As reconciliation of the fractured psyche into a cohesive whole is the goal of analytical psychology, so, too, is reconciliation with all of nature in the spiritual realm, the goal of God: Colossians 1:20 “And, having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto Himself [the Archetype of Wholeness]; by him, whether they be things in earth [the physical, natural realm], or things in heaven [the mental and spiritual realm].”

All the pressure from human and spiritual opposing forces, which includes the archetypes, powers, and dominions, will lead the individual, transformed, into the wholeness and harmony of body, soul (psyche) and spirit (unconscious) that once was at one with God (The Self).


The Greek transliteration of the spiritual term reconcile points to the same goal in therapeutic psychology: G604 apokatallasso {ap-ok-at-al-las'-so}; from G575 and G2644 AV - reconcile 3; 3

1) to reconcile completely

2) to reconcile back again

3) bring back a former state of harmony

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G604)

G2644 katallasso {kat-al-las'-so}; from 2596 and 236 AV - reconcile 6; 6

1) to change, exchange, as coins for others of equivalent value

1a) to reconcile (those who are at variance)

1b) return to favour with, be reconciled to one

1c) to receive one into favour

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G2644)

G236 allasso {al-las'-so}; from G243 AV - change 6; 6

1) to change, to exchange one thing for another, to transform

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G236)

Chief Princes)

There are two significant passages of scripture which lend additional weight to the archetype/principality correlation hypothesis. The first is a New Testament scripture: Jude 1:6 “And the angels which kept not their first estate, but left their own habitation, he hath reserved in everlasting chains under darkness unto the judgment of the great day.”

The words first estate actually mean principality: “And the angels which kept not their own principality”. The Vulgate translates it in this proper manner as does Strong's concordance define first estate as principality: G746 arche {ar-khay'}; from G756

AV - beginning 40, principality 8, corner 2, first 2, misc 6; 58

1) beginning, origin

2) the person or thing that commences, the first person or thing in a series, the leader

3) that by which anything begins to be, the origin, the active cause

4) the extremity of a thing

4a) of the corners of a sail

5) the first place, principality, rule, magistracy

5a) of angels and demons

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s G746)

This verse and its Greek transliteration should be carefully read, for it not only expresses the archeype/principality link but, most importantly, also defines for Christians what first estate actually means. Further, and perhaps most importantly of all, it identifies who it was who left their first estate: angels. This would mean archangels.

The second scripture is from the Old Testament. This is a profound series of verses which should be read in its entirety in order to gain the full context of the presentation, for it is drama made manifest of the unseen archetypal world of spirits interacting with the physical realm. The word study intermingled in the drama is most beneficial and illuminating. Daniel 10:4-13 reads:

4. And in the four and twentieth day of the first month, as I was by the side of the great river, which [is] Hiddekel;

5. Then I lifted up mine eyes, and looked, and behold a certain man clothed in linen, whose loins [were] girded with fine gold of Uphaz:

6. His body also [was] like the beryl, and his face as the appearance of lightning, and his eyes as lamps of fire, and his arms and his feet like in colour to polished brass, and the voice of his words like the voice of a multitude.

7. And I Daniel alone saw the vision: for the men that were with me saw not the vision; but a great quaking fell upon them, so that they fled to hide themselves.

8. Therefore I was left alone, and saw this great vision, and there remained no strength in me: for my comeliness was turned in me into corruption, and I retained no strength.

9. Yet heard I the voice of his words: and when I heard the voice of his words, then was I in a deep sleep on my face, and my face toward the ground.

10. And, behold, an hand touched me, which set me upon my knees and [upon] the palms of my hands.

11. And he said unto me, O Daniel, a man greatly beloved, understand the words that I speak unto thee, and stand upright: for unto thee am I now sent. And when he had spoken this word unto me, I stood trembling.

12. Then said he unto me, Fear not, Daniel: for from the first day that thou didst set thine heart to understand, and to chasten thyself before thy God, thy words were heard, and I am come for thy words.

13. But the prince of the kingdom of Persia withstood me one and twenty days: but, lo, Michael, one of the chief princes, came to help me; and I remained there with the kings of Persia.


H7223 ri'shown {ree-shone'} or ri'shon {ree-shone'} from H7221

AV - first 129, former 26, former things 6, beginning 4, chief 3, before 3, old time 2, foremost 3, aforetime 1, misc 8; 185


1) first, primary, former

1a) former (of time)

1a1) ancestors

1a2) former things

1b) foremost (of location)

1c) first (in time)

1d) first, chief (in degree)


2) first, before, formerly, at first

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H7223)

The root word of both H7223 above and H7221, again, is H7218 ro'sh, identified as correlating with the meaning of archetype:

H7218 ro'sh

AV - head 349, chief 91, top 73, beginning 14, company 12, captain 10,sum 9, first 6, principal 5, chapiters 4, rulers 2, misc 23; 598

1) head, top, summit, upper part, chief, total, sum, height, front, beginning

1a) head (of man, animals)

1b) top, tip (of mountain)

1c) height (of stars)

1d) chief, head (of man, city, nation, place, family, priest)

1e) head, front, beginning

1f) chief, choicest, best

1g) head, division, company, band

1h) sum

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H7218)


Michael is identified as being one of the chief princes. Who they are is discovered through a Hebrew word study of the term prince:

H8269 sar {sar}; from H8323

AV - prince 208, captain 130, chief 33, ruler 33, governor 6, keeper 3, principal 2, general 1, lords 1, misc 4; 421

1) prince, ruler, leader, chief, chieftain, official, captain

1a) chieftain, leader

1b) vassal, noble, official (under king)

1c) captain, general, commander (military)

1d) chief, head, overseer (of other official classes)

1e) heads, princes (of religious office)

1f) elders (of representative leaders of people)

1g) merchant-princes (of rank and dignity)

1h) patron-angel

1i) Ruler of rulers (of God)

1j) warden

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H8269)

H8323 sarar {saw-rar'}; a primitive root

AV - rule 3, make prince 1, altogether 1; 5

1) to be or act as prince, rule, contend, have power, prevail over, reign, govern

1a) (Qal) to rule over, govern

1b) (Hithpael) to lord it over

(Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H8323)

It is readily seen that the term prince also carries with it the same connotative activity as does archetype.

Archetypal Image and Likeness

Daniel 10:14-16 reads:

14. Now I am come to make thee understand what shall befall thy people in the latter days: for yet the vision [is] for [many] days.

15. And when he had spoken such words unto me, I set my face toward the ground, and I became dumb.

16. And, behold, [one] like the similitude of the sons of men touched my lips: then I opened my mouth,

and spake, and said unto him that stood before me, O my lord, by the vision my sorrows are turned upon

me, and I have retained no strength.


Similitude is the same word used for the term likeness in Genesis 1:26, where Man is made in the image after the likeness of the 'elohyim. The term here invokes the image Daniel "saw" in a vision which was in the likeness of the sons of men. The likeness is a description of the archetypal image Daniel saw: H1823 demuwth {dem-ooth'}; from H1819

AV - likeness 19, similitude 2, like 2, manner 1, fashion 1; 25

1) likeness, similitude

2) in the likeness of, like as

Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Strong’s H1823)

Continuing with Daniel 10:17-21:

17. For how can the servant of this my lord talk with this my lord? for as for me, straightway there remained no strength in me, neither is there breath left in me.

18. Then there came again and touched me [one] like the appearance of a man, and he strengthened me,

19. And said, O man greatly beloved, fear not: peace [be] unto thee, be strong, yea, be strong. And when he had spoken unto me, I was strengthened, and said, Let my lord speak; for thou hast strengthened me.

20. Then said he, Knowest thou wherefore I come unto thee? and now will I return to fight with the prince of Persia: and when I am gone forth, lo, the prince of Grecia shall come.

21. But I will shew thee that which is noted in the scripture of truth: and [there is] none that holdeth with me in these things, but Michael your prince.

Michael steps forth from the unseen realm in another scripture from the New Testament. This scripture also identifies Michael as an archangel and the activity issuing forth behind the veil of human existence: Jude 1:9 Yet Michael the archangel, when contending with the devil he disputed about the body of Moses, durst not bring against him a railing accusation, but said, The Lord rebuke thee.


Jung stated that an archetype manifests through an image and that the archetype is known through the image . A word study from Vine's Expository Dictionary Of New Testament Words (n.d., in Blue Letter Bible) of the term image shows a high correlation with Jung’s meaning: G1504 Greek: eikon denotes an image; the word involves the two ideas of representation and manifestation. The word is used:

(1) of an "image" or a coin (not a mere likeness), Mat 22:20; Mar 12:16; Luk 20:24; so of a statue or similar representation (more than a resemblance), Rom 1:23; Rev 13:14,15 (thrice); 14:9,11; 15:2; 16:2; 19:20; 20:4; of the descendants of Adam as bearing his image, 1Cr 15:49, each a representation derived from the prototype;

(2) of subjects relative to things spiritual, Hbr 10:1, negatively of the Law as having "a shadow of the good things to come, not the very image of the things," i.e., not the essential and substantial form of them; the contrast has been likened to the difference between a statue and the shadow cast by it;

(3) of the relations between God the Father, Christ, and man,

(a) of man as he was created as being a visible representation of God, 1Cr 11:7, a being corresponding to the original; the condition of man as a fallen creature has not entirely effaced the "image"; he is still suitable to bear responsibility, he still has Godlike qualities, such as love of goodness and beauty, none of which are found in a mere animal; in the Fall man ceased to be a perfect vehicle for the representation of God; God's grace in Christ will yet accomplish more than what Adam lost;

(b) of regenerate persons, in being moral representations of what God is, Col 3:10; cp. Eph 4:24;

(c) of believers, in their glorified state, not merely as resembling Christ but representing Him, Rom 8:29; 1Cr 15:49; here the perfection is the work of Divine grace; believers are yet to represent, not something like Him, but what He is in Himself, both in His spiritual body and in His moral character;

(d) of Christ in relation to God, 2Cr 4:4, "the image of God", i.e., essentially and absolutely the perfect expression and representation of the Archetype, God the Father; in Col 1:15, "the image of the invisible God" gives the additional thought suggested by the word "invisible", that Christ is the visible representation and manifestation of God to created beings; the likeness expressed in this manifestation is involved in the essential relations in the Godhead, and is therefore unique and perfect; "he that hath seen Me hath seen the Father", Jhn 14:9.

"The epithet 'invisible'…must not be confined to the apprehension of the bodily senses, but will include the cognizance of the inward eye also" (Lightfoot). As to synonymous words, homoioma, "likeness", stresses the resemblance to an archetype, though the resemblance may not be derived, whereas eikon is a "derived likeness" (see LIKENESS); eidos, "a shape, form", is an appearance, "not necessarily based on reality" (see FORM); skia, is "a shadowed resemblance" (see SHADOW); the form, as indicative of the inner being".

Blue Letter Bible, 1996-2011, Vines in Strong’s G1504)

A summary definition of the word study above would seem to be “a visible image, manifestation, representation of or correspondence to an invisible thing or being, its features derived from the prototype (archetype)”.


Jung conceived of a primordial reservoir of inherited instincts which he called the archetypes, seeing that the archetypes influence and shape our individual motives and behaviors. He saw the unconscious as a vast collective of psychospiritual influences from which all inherited, human influences – including the religious and the creative – emerge in time and space. Thus, although the individual psyche believes itself to be "in charge", the reality is otherwise. The individual is not ultimately autonomous, for man is an image, a manifestation of an original pattern – an archetype.

Webster defines "god(s)" as "any various being(s) conceived of as supernatural, immortal and having special powers over the lives and affairs of people and the course of nature; deity". That is strikingly similar to both the meaning and the spirit of the Strong's translation of the word principalities. And it is strikingly similar to both the meaning and the spirit of Jung's archetypes.

Writing to Bernard Milt, on 13 April 1946, Jung defines these archetypes as, "structural forms that underlie [prenatal] consciousness as the crystal lattice underlies the crystallization process." (Jung, 1973, p. 418)

These archetypes are thought, then, to preexist prenatal consciousness, and to manifest during the postnatal stages, as when the archetypes created Man. And continue to create – without us and within us, opposing us and assisting us – inclinations and desires common to Mankind. So, too, the principalities.

It is evident that the Jungian theory of archetypes enlightens our understanding of the principalities of Christianity, and that the principalities of Christianity spiritualize the Jungian archetypes. Therapeutic psychology benefits from the incorporation of the spiritually correlated applications, and Christianity benefits from the pure knowledge that psychology offers by way of scientific observation. The world can only be enriched by such knowledge.

To quote C. G. Jung:

"It might equally be called the “God within us”. (1972, para. 399)

"You will naturally remonstrate that, after all, I talk about “God”. I do this with the same right as humanity has from the beginning equated the numinous effects of certain psychological facts with an unknown primal cause called God. This cause is beyond my understanding, and therefore I can say nothing further about it except that I am convinced of the existence of such a cause, and indeed with the same logic by which one may conclude from the disturbance of a planet's course the existence of a yet unknown heavenly body." (1977, para. 646)


Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for allassō (Strong's 236)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G236

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for apokatallassō (Strong's 604)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G604

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for archē (Strong's 746)".

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for archō (Strong's 757)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G757

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for archomai (Strong's 756)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G756

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for archōn (Strong's 758)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G758

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for dĕmuwth (Strong's 1823)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H1823

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for eikōn (Strong's 1504)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G1504/b>

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for katallassō (Strong's 2644)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G2644

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for mar'ashah (Strong's 4761)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H4761

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for re'shiyth (Strong's 7225)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H7225

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for ri'shown (Strong's 7223)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H7223

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for ro'sh (Strong's 7218)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H7218

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for sar (Strong's 8269)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H8269

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for sarar (Strong's 8323)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=H8323

Blue Letter Bible. "Dictionary and Word Search for typos (Strong's 5179)".

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G5179

Merriam-Webster’s Dictionary online (n.d.). Definition of archetype. http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/archetype?show=0&t=1294883699

Jung, C. G. (with von Franz, M.-L., Henderson, J. L, Jacobi, J. & Jaffe, A.) (1968). Man and his symbols. New York, NY: Dell Publishing.

Jung, C. G. (1970a). On the nature of the psyche. In G. Adler (ed.) & R. F. C. Hull (trans.), Collected works, Vol. 8: Structure and dynamics of the psyche. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G. (1970b). Mind and earth. In G. Adler (ed.) & R. F. C. Hull (trans.), Collected works, Vol. 10: Civilization in transition. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G. (1970c). A psychological approach to the trinity. In G. Adler (ed.) & R. F. C. Hull (trans.), Collected works, Vol. 11: Psychology and religion: East and west. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G. (1971). The spirit in man, art and literature. In G. Adler (ed.) & R. F. C. Hull (trans.), Collected works, Vol. 15. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G. (1972). The mana personality. In G. Adler (ed.) & R. F. C. Hull (trans.), Collected works, Vol. 7: Two essays in analytical psychology. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Jung, C. G. (1977). The symbolic life: Miscellaneous writings. In G. Adler (ed.) & R. F. C. Hull (trans.), Collected works, Vol. 18. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Vine’s Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words in Blue Letter Bible (n.d.). "Dictionary and Word Search for eikōn (Strong's 1504)", click on “Vines”.

Blue Letter Bible. 1996-2011. 12 Jan 2011. http://www.blueletterbible.org/lang/lexicon/lexicon.cfm?strongs=G1504"